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History of Christianity in Asia, Africa and Latin America, 1450 - 1990

 

In 2004 a source book with a selection of primary documents on the history of Christianity in Asia, Africa and Latin America,  has been published in German language: K. Koschorke /F. Ludwig /M. Delgado (Eds.), Außereuropäische Christentumsgeschichte (Asien, Afrika, Lateinamerika) 1450 - 1990. (Kirchen- und Theologiegeschichte in Quellen Bd. VI), Neukirchen-Vluyn, 1. edition 2004, 2. edition 2006. It has attracted considerable attention and has been listed among the "15 outstanding books of 2004" by the renowned 'International Bulletin of Missionary Research'.
 

An English edition has recently been published: K. Koschorke /F. Ludwig /M. Delgado (Eds.): History of Christianity in Asia, Africa and Latin America, 1450-1990: A Documentary Source Book, Eerdmans: Grand Rapids 2007. Below you can find its Table of Contents.

 

Table of Contents

First Part: Asia

I.      Asia 1450-1600   
II.     Asia 1600-1800   
III.    Asia 1800-1890   
IV.    Asia 1890-1945   
V.     Asia 1945-1990   

Second Part: Africa

I.      Africa 1450-1600   
II.     Africa 1600-1800   
III.    Africa 1800-1890   
IV.    Africa 1890-1945   
V.     Africa 1945-1990   

Third Part: Latin America

I.      Latin America 1450-1600   
II.     Latin America 1600-1800   
III.    Latin America 1800-1890   
IV.    Latin America 1890-1945   
V.     Latin America 1945-1990   




Redaktion Weltwoche

Detailed Table of Contents

 

Preface......................................................................................................................... i

Table of Contents.................................................................................................... iii

 

 

I. Asia 1450-1600....................................................................................................... 1

 

A. Christians in Asia before the Arrival of the Portuguese 1

1......... St. Thomas Christians in India............................................................ 1

a) Testimony of the Italian traveler Nicolò Conti (1415-1439)............ 1

b) A Syrian Document from c. 1504 ...................................................... 1

2......... Nestorians and Armenian Christians in Southern Asia (1508)...... 2

3......... Jews and Christians in China.............................................................. 3

a) Jews in Kaifeng: The Stele of 1489.................................................... 3

b) Matteo Ricci on the Jews of Kaifeng (1605).................................... 3

c) Matteo Ricci on the Remnants of Chinese Christianity (1605)...... 4

 

B. Early Portuguese Contacts................................................................ 4

4......... Searching for “Christians and Spices” (1498).................................. 4

5......... Fictitious and Actual Contacts with the St Thomas Christians.... 5

a) Visiting a “Church” in Calicut (1498)................................................. 6

b) Failure with the Samorin in Calicut (1498)........................................ 6

c) The Mission of Cabral (1500)............................................................. 7

6......... The Arrival of the Portuguese from an Arab Perspective ............. 8

7......... St. Thomas Christians on the Arrival of the Portuguese (1504).... 8

 

C. The Organization of Colonial Churches.................................... 9

8......... Portuguese and Spanish Patronage in Mission............................... 9

a) The Papal Bull “Inter cetera” from Pope Calixtus III (1456)........... 9

b) The Exercise of Patronage in the Philippines (1580)..................... 10

9......... Goa as a Political and Ecclesiastical Center.................................... 10

a) The Raising of Goa to the Seat of the Bishopric (1534)................ 10

b) Complaints about the Immorality of Settlers and Clergy............. 11

c) Position of the Non-Christians (1522)............................................. 11

d) The Introduction of the Inquisition in Goa (1543)........................ 11

 

D. Francis Xavier in Asia (1542-1552)...................................................... 12

10....... India...................................................................................................... 12

a) Goa (1452)............................................................................................ 12

b) South India: The Paravas (1542-1544)............................................. 12

11....... Southeast Asia: The Sultanate of Ternate ..................................... 13

12....... Japan..................................................................................................... 14

a) First Plans............................................................................................ 14

b) Experiences in Japan.......................................................................... 14

13....... Plans for China.................................................................................... 14

 

E. Intercultural Contacts..................................................................... 15

14....... The Philippines: Christian Conversion and the Demonization
of local religion.................................................................................... 15

a) Magellan as Preacher (1521)............................................................. 15

b) Filipino Religion as “The Work of the Devil”................................ 16

15....... Japan: Religious Debates between Jesuits and Buddhists
(1551).................................................................................................... 17

 

F. Forms of Local Christianity............................................................. 18

16....... Southern India: The Mass Conversion of the Paravas
(1535-1538)........................................................................................... 18

17....... Ceylon (Sri Lanka): The Martyrs of Mannar (1544)....................... 19

 

G. St. Thomas Christians and the Portuguese before 1599... 20

18....... Growing Alienation (1516/18)........................................................... 20

19....... Campaigns for the Latinization of the St. Thomas Christians
(1550).................................................................................................... 20

20....... Forced Integration at the Synod of Diamper (1599)...................... 21

 

 

II. Asia 1600-1800.................................................................................................... 23

 

A. Forms of Catholic Presence.............................................................. 23

21....... Religious Orders in the Philippines.................................................. 23

Report of Governor Francisco Tello (9 July 1598):............................ 23

22....... Jesuits at the Court of Mogul Emperor Akbar I............................. 24

23....... The Persecution of Christians in Japan........................................... 24

a) Edict on the Closure of the Land (June 1636)................................ 24

b) “Oath of Apostasy” (1645)............................................................... 25

 

B. Accommodation Strategies and the Rites Controversy 26

24....... Matteo Ricci in China (1583-1610).................................................... 26

a) Letter from November 13, 1584......................................................... 26

b) Theory and Practice of Accommodation ....................................... 26

c) “The True Meaning [of the Doctrine] of the Lord of Heaven”
(1603)........................................................................................................ 27

d) A Chinese Voice on Ricci................................................................. 27

25....... Roberto de Nobili in South India (1606-1656)................................. 28

26....... Indochina: Instruction of the “Propaganda” of 1659.................... 29

27....... China: Emperor K’ang Hsi’s Edict of Tolerance (1692)................. 30

28....... Prohibition of Chinese Rites by Clement XI (1704)....................... 30

 

C. Colonial Forms of Protestantism................................................ 31

29....... Trading Companies as Colonial Rulers........................................... 31

a) The Charter of the Dutch East India Company (V.O.C.)
1642........................................................................................................... 32

b) The Charter of the English East India Company (1698)............... 32

30....... The English in Bombay (1698).......................................................... 32

31....... Life in Dutch V.O.C. Churches.......................................................... 33

a) Language Problems of the Preachers in Ceylon (1750)................ 33

b) Cultural Pressure to Conform (1643)............................................... 34

c) Indonesia: Conflicts with Colonial Authorities (1655).................. 34

 

D. Indigenous Forms of Christianity................................................. 34

32....... Catholic Underground Church in Ceylon....................................... 34

33....... Autonomously Founded Communities in Korea (since 1784)..... 35

a) "Peter" Seung Hoon Lee on the Situation in the Year 1789......... 36

b) Korean Underground Theology: Extracts from the
“Essentials of the Lord’s Teaching” by Chong Yak-jong
Augustine (ca. 1796) ............................................................................. 36

c) The First Martyrs (1791).................................................................... 37

 

E. Tranquebar 1706 and its Consequences ..................................... 38

34....... First Lutheran Communities and Church Buildings ..................... 38

35....... Religious Dialogue with Hindu Brahmans...................................... 39

36....... Conflicts with the Colonial Authorities .......................................... 40

a) The Imprisonment of Ziegenbalg
(November 1708 - March 1709)............................................................. 40

b) Slave Trade as One of the Controversial Issues........................... 40

37....... Ziegenbalg’s unpublished Work:
“Malabarian Heathenism” (1711)..................................................... 41

38....... Ordination of the First Indian Pastor, Aaron (1733)...................... 42

 

 

III. Asia 1800-1890................................................................................................ 43

 

A. The General Situation in the early Nineteenth century 43

39....... India: Decline of Catholicism (1815)................................................. 43

40....... Ceylon: Collapse of the Reformed V.O.C. Church (ca. 1796)........ 43

41....... Debates about the Admission of Missionaries to
British India (1813).............................................................................. 44

a) Protests Against the so-called “Missions Clauses” ................... 44

b) The Charter of 1813............................................................................ 44

42....... The Reorganization of Protestantism in Indonesia (1817)............ 45

 

B. Southern Asia: A New Beginning in Serampore (1800).......... 45

43....... William Carey on Methods of Evangelization (1796).................... 46

44....... Bible Translations and Book Printing (1811).................................. 46

45....... The Founding of Serampore College (1818)................................... 47

46....... Ecumenical Visions............................................................................. 47

a) Relations with the St. Thomas Christians (1806)........................... 48

b) William Carey's Proposal for a
World Missionary Conference (1806)................................................. 48

 

C. Mission as a Means of Modernization ...................................... 48

47....... The Education System....................................................................... 48

48....... Medical Missions in China............................................................... 49

49....... Struggle Against the “Social Evils” of Hinduism.......................... 49

50....... Burma: A Missionary at the Royal Court in Mandalay (1868)..... 50

 

D. Public Response, Non-Christian Voices........................................ 51

51....... The Hindu Reformer Rammohun Roy (1772-1833)......................... 51

a) "The Commandments of Jesus the Leader for
Peace and Happiness” (1820)............................................................... 51

b) “An Appeal to the Christian Public” (1823)................................... 52

52....... Religious Debates in Colonial Ceylon (1873)................................. 52

53....... Japan: Buddhist Voices on Christianity ......................................... 53

 

E. Northeast Asia: A Forced Opening................................................. 54

54....... Karl Gützlaff’s “Chinese Accounts” ............................................... 54

55....... China: Forced Missionary Protectorate (from 1842)...................... 55

a) The Nanjing Convention (August 29, 1842).................................. 55

b) The Bejing Convention of 1860....................................................... 55

56....... Japan: Gradual steps towards legality ............................................ 56

a) The Trial of a Foreigner..................................................................... 56

b) Forced Opening (1853ff)................................................................... 57

c) First Conversions (1865)................................................................... 57

d) Repeal of the Anti-Christian Edict (1878)....................................... 58

57....... Vietnam: Edict against the Christians (1851).................................. 59

58....... Korea: Protestant Beginnings (since 1884)..................................... 59

a) Korean Christians in the Diaspora................................................... 60

b) The first American Missionaries..................................................... 60

 

F. Indigenous Versions Of Christianity............................................. 61

59....... Japan: the “Hidden Christians” of Nagasaki (1865)...................... 61

a) First Contacts with Western Visitors (1865).................................. 61

b) From their Scripture “The Beginning of Heaven and Earth”....... 62

60....... South Asia: Migrants as Multipliers (1854).................................... 63

61....... China: The Taiping Rebellion (1850-1864)...................................... 63

a) The Vision of Hong Xiuquan........................................................... 63

b) The Ten Commandments and the Lord's Prayer among
the Taiping............................................................................................... 64

c) Taiping as a popular movement....................................................... 65

d) Taiping China and the “Christian Nations”................................... 65

 

 

IV. Asia 1890-1945.................................................................................................. 67

 

A. Religious Revival and Political Nationalism ...................... 67

62....... Religious Revival as a Pan-Asian Phenomenon ........................... 67

63....... Hindu Renaissance in India.............................................................. 67

a) Change of Public Opinion in India................................................... 67

b) The Goals of the Indian National Congress (1885)....................... 68

c) Revival as an Inter-Religious Phenomenon................................... 68

64....... The Rise of Buddhism in Ceylon (Sri Lanka) ................................. 69

a) The "Buddhist Catechism" from H.S. Olcott (1881)...................... 69

b) The Situation around 1900................................................................ 69

65....... Japan’s Victory over Russia 1904-1905 and the Asian Elites...... 70

 

B. Attempts at Indigenization in the Protestant Churches 70

66....... Programmatic Statements.................................................................. 70

a) Indian Christians and the Vision of an Indian Church (1908)...... 71

b) A Missionary’s Voice from Ceylon (1908)..................................... 71

c) Characteristics of a Native Church in China (1924)....................... 71

67....... Demands for a “Native Bishop” (1899)........................................... 72

68....... Christian Ashrams (1921).................................................................. 72

 

C. Local Ecumenical Initiatives And Edinburgh 1910............... 73

69....... Protests against Western Denominationalism............................... 73

a) Voices of Indian Christians (1897/98).............................................. 73

b) The Mood around 1910..................................................................... 74

70....... The World Missionary Conference in Edinburgh 1910 as
a Catalyst ............................................................................................ 74

a) An Analysis of the Situation in Asia.............................................. 74

b) Message from the Conference on World Christianity................. 75

71....... Edinburgh in Asia: The China Conference of 1913....................... 75

72....... Local forms of Cooperation............................................................... 76

 

D. Developments in Catholic Asia....................................................... 77

73....... Foundation of an Indian Hierarchy.................................................. 77

74....... Indigenous Bishops in China........................................................... 78

75....... The Abolition of the Anti-Rites Oath (1939).................................. 79

 

E. Independent Church Movements..................................................... 79

76....... Ceylon: Petition for an “Independent Native Church” (1878)..... 79

77....... India: The “National Church of India” (Madras 1886).................. 80

a) Setting Goals....................................................................................... 81

b) Account of an Assembly.................................................................. 81

c) National Church and Mission Churches........................................ 81

d) Indian National Church and Indian National Movement............. 82

78....... Japan: Kanzo Uchimura’s “Non-Church” (1901)........................... 82

79....... Philippines: Aglipay’s “Iglesia Filipina Independiente”
(1898-1902)........................................................................................... 83

a) Aglipay’s Manifesto of 21 October 1898........................................ 83

b) Unsuccessful Contact with Protestants......................................... 83

 

F. Developments in the 1920s and 1930s............................................... 84

80....... Korea: Christians and the Independence Movement (1919)........ 84

a) The Independence Movement of 1 March 1919............................ 84

b) Massacre in a Village Church........................................................... 85

81....... China: The Anti-Christian Movement (1922-1925)........................ 86

82....... India: Gandhi on Christianity............................................................ 86

a) On Conversions (1920)...................................................................... 86

b) Western Christianity and the Sermon on the Mount (1921)....... 87

83....... Tambaram (1938) as an Ecumenical Event...................................... 87

a) The “Rethinking Christianity in India” Group............................... 88

b) Tambaram and the “Young Churches”........................................... 88

 

G. The Asian Churches during World War II................................. 89

84....... Japan: Forced Unification (1941)...................................................... 89

85....... Persecution of Christians in Territories Occupied by Japan........ 89

86....... India: Fear of Marginalization (1944)............................................... 90

 

 

V. Asia 1945-1990 ................................................................................................ 91

 

A. The Churches and Nation Building in the 1950s..................... 91

87....... India: Church Union and Hindu Nationalism................................. 91

a) The South India Church Merger in 1947......................................... 91

b) Articles on Religion in the Indian Constitution of 1950............... 91

c) Restriction of Missionary Activities............................................... 92

88....... Indonesia: Monotheism as State Doctrine (Pancasila)................. 92

a) From the Declaration of Independence (1945)............................... 93

b) President Sukarno on the Five Basic Principles (Pancasila)........ 93

89....... Japan: Japanese Christians' Confession of Responsibility
(1946).................................................................................................... 93

 

B. Under Communist Rule.......................................................................... 94

90....... China: Christians in the People's Republic..................................... 94

a) Mao Zedong (1893-1976) on Religion............................................. 95

b) Chinese Christians writing to the Overseas Missions (1949)..... 95

c) Expulsion of Foreign Missionaries.................................................. 95

d) The Protestant “Three Self Movement”......................................... 96

e) Consecration of Bishops without Rome’s Consent...................... 96

91....... North Korea: Kim Il Sung on the Sermon on the Mount.............. 96

92....... North Vietnam: Massive Flight of Catholic Christians (1954)...... 97

 

C. Developments in the 1960s.................................................................... 98

93....... Sri Lanka: Nationalization of Church Schools .............................. 98

94....... Burma: Buddhist Nationalism and the Churches........................... 98

95....... China: Christians during the Cultural Revolution.......................... 99

a) Cultural Revolution as a Permanent Process ................................ 99

b) “Reject Revisionist Religious Superstition”.................................. 99

c) Closures of Churches and Religious buildings........................... 100

96....... South Korea: Explosive Church Growth ....................................... 100

97....... Indonesia: The Coup of 1965 and its Consequences ................. 101

98....... The Second Vatican Council (1962-65) and its Reception
in Asia................................................................................................ 101

99....... The "Christian Conference of Asia" (1973).................................. 102

100. ... The Concept of Contextualization (1972) ..................................... 102

101. ... Minjung Theology in Korea........................................................... 103

102. ... Theology of Liberation and Asian Religiosity............................. 104

 

D. Trends at the End of the 1980s........................................................ 105

103. ... Political Liberalization: Christians in China .................................. 105

104. ... The “Rosary Revolution” in the Philippines................................ 106

a) Rebellion against the Marcos Regime (July 1984)....................... 106

b) The Ecclesial Broadcasting Station “Veritas”
(February 1986)..................................................................................... 106

c) Massive demonstrations (February 1986).................................... 106

105. ... Islamic Fundamentalism: Christians in Pakistan.......................... 107

106. ... Warning of Exaggerated Contextualization (1982)....................... 107

107. ... A New Urgency for Interreligious Dialogue (1986)..................... 108

 

 

I. Africa 1450-1600................................................................................................ 109

 

A. Ancient African Christianity........................................................ 109

108. ... Leo Africanus on Africa and Ethiopia .......................................... 109

109. ... Ethiopia according to the Kebra Nagast....................................... 109

a) The conversion of the Queen of Sheba ....................................... 109

b) Menyelek, the son of Salomon and the Queen of Sheba........... 110

110. ... Saga Za-àb: Ethiopian-Egyptian Contacts (1540) ....................... 111

111. ... Francisco Alvarez: Traces of Nubian Christianity....................... 111

 

B. European Expansion and New Discoveries ............................. 112

112. ... The Rise of Portugal: Schedels World Chronicle (1493) ........... 112

113. ... The Papal Privileges of Portugal ................................................... 113

114. ... Mission and Violence...................................................................... 113

115. ... Explorations: Vasco da Gama in Mozambique.............................. 114

116. ... Destruction of Eastern African City States (1505)....................... 115

 

C. Encounters................................................................................................. 116

117. ... A Portuguese Ambassador in Benin (1516)................................. 116

118. ... An African Ambassador from Benin in Portugal......................... 116

a) Ruy de Pina’s Account................................................................... 117

b) Local African Recollections........................................................... 117

119. ... South Africa: Between Aggression and Martyrdom.................. 117

 

D. African Catholicism In The Congo.............................................. 118

120. ... Lopez: The Beginnings of the Church in Congo (1491).............. 118

121. ... The Manikongo complains about unfit priests (1514) ............... 119

122. ... Complaints about the Slave Trade (1526)..................................... 120

 

E. Ethiopia and Portugal........................................................................ 121

123. ... The Ethiopian King to the Pope (1524)......................................... 121

124. ... The War against the Muslims in the King’s Chronicle ............. 122

125. ... The ‘Confessio Fidei’ of Emperor Galawdewos (1555)............... 124

126. ... Lent and Easter in the Ethiopian Church...................................... 125

 

 

II. Africa 1600-1800............................................................................................... 126

 

A. Slavetrade................................................................................................. 126

127. ... Early Accounts of Africans Captured by Europeans................. 126

128. ... Joachim Nettelbeck: Trade in Africa ............................................. 127

129. ... A Protestant on the Portuguese Slave Trade .............................. 127

130. ... Account of the Slave trade by an African Priest......................... 128

131. ... Mission to Slaves in South Africa (1658)..................................... 129

 

B. Catholic Rulers....................................................................................... 129

132. ... The King of Warri (West Africa) to the Pope (1652).................. 129

133. ... Warri: Complaints about Shortage of Priests (1692)................... 130

134. ... Zimbabwe: Baptism of King Manamotapa (1652)........................ 131

 

C. Catholic Experiments And Failures........................................... 132

135. ... Sierra Leone as Base........................................................................ 132

136. ... Egypt: Report of a Jesuit (1723) ..................................................... 133

137. ... Gold Coast: Traditions Difficult to Overcome.............................. 133

138. ... “We are no better than our forefathers” (1704)........................... 134

139. ... Execution of three Capuchins in Ethiopia (1684)......................... 135

140. ... Gold Coast: Lutheran Mission Initiatives (1673)......................... 136

141. ... An African Pastor Concerning India as Model........................... 136

142. ... The Moravians in South and West Africa .................................. 137

a) Georg Schmidt on the Cape (1744)................................................. 137

b) Moravian Baptisms rejected (1743)............................................... 139

c) Carl Christian Reindorf: The Beginnings in West Africa
(1737)...................................................................................................... 139

d) C.J. Protten Africanus: Letter of Application (1735)................... 140

 

D. Protests Against The Slave Trade.............................................. 141

143. ... The “Encyclopédie” on the Slave Trade (1765)........................... 141

144. ... The Zong insurance case (1783).................................................... 141

145. ... William Wilberforce: Speech at the Parliament (1789)................. 142

146. ... Olaudah Equiano on his Enslavement (1789)............................... 143

147. ... Opposition to the Anti Slavery Movement ................................. 144

 

 

III. Africa 1800-1890.............................................................................................. 145

 

A. Abolition Of The Slave trade And Mission............................ 145

148. ... Liberated Slaves and Sierra Leone ................................................ 145

a) Arrival of Afro-Americans from Nova Scotia (1792)................... 145

b) A “flourishing Christian black African nation”........................... 145

149. ... The tasks of the Church Missionary Society............................... 146

150. ... A Freed Slave: Samuel Ajayi Crowther (1837).............................. 147

151. ... Afro-American Missionaries for Liberia (1833)............................ 148

152. ... Reform Program to Abolish the Slave Trade................................ 148

a) Commerce, Civilization, Christianity ............................................. 149

b) Program of the Society for the Extinction of the Slave
Trade and for the Civilization of Africa, June 1839..................... 149

 

B. New Missionary Societies.................................................................. 149

153. ... Samuel Johnson: The Anglican Yoruba Mission........................ 149

154. ... Negotiations of the Basel Mission in Ghana (1835) ................... 150

155. ... Alexander Merensky: “Openings” in Swaziland (1860) ............. 151

156. ... Casalis and Chief Moshesh in Lesotho (1833)............................. 151

157. ... A Catholic Voice: Cardinal Lavigerie (ca. 1877)........................... 152

 

C. Livingstone and other “Explorers”............................................. 153

158. ... Egypt: Napoleon and Coptic Christians........................................ 153

a) Intentions (1798)............................................................................... 153

b) Orders (1800)..................................................................................... 153

159. ... Explorations in Africa: An “open door for missions”................. 154

160. ... Heinrich Barth: A German in Muslim West Africa ..................... 154

161. ... Johann Rebmann: On Mount Kilimanjaro (1848)......................... 155

162. ... David Livingstone: Conversion of Sechele.................................. 155

 

D. Mission Initiatives And African Rulers................................... 157

163. ... Madagascar ..................................................................................... 157

a) Delegation of the King Radama I. to England (1820) ................. 157

b) Missions prohibited by Queen Ranavalona I. (1835)................. 157

c) Resolution on missionary supervision......................................... 158

d) The Missionaries’ criticism of College students......................... 158

164. ... Buganda (Uganda)........................................................................... 158

a) Religious Debate at the court of Uganda’s King........................ 158

b) Uganda’s Martyrs. The Report of Denis Kanyukas................... 159

c) Invitation to all European nations (1890)...................................... 160

d) Further Developments: British and Protestant............................ 160

e) Triumph Song of the Ugandan Protestants................................. 161

 

E. African Christian Elite....................................................................... 161

165. ... West Africa....................................................................................... 161

a) Samuel Ajayi Crowther: Concerns (1860)..................................... 161

b) O. Payne: The Significance of Bishop Crowther (1892)............. 161

c) James Africanus Horton: Africa’s potential (1868)..................... 162

166. ... South African Voices....................................................................... 163

a) Tiyo Soga: Race Discrimination in South Africa (1857)............. 163

b) John Tengo Jabavu: New Forms of Slavery (1889)..................... 163

 

 

IV. Africa 1890-1945.............................................................................................. 165

 

A. “Scramble for Africa”........................................................................ 165

167. ... Declarations of intentions and objectives ................................... 165

a) Cecil Rhodes: The Englishmen as tools of God........................... 165

b) A. Mackay, England’s destiny as a “Christian nation”
(1886)...................................................................................................... 165

c) Friedrich Fabri: “A new India” (1879) .......................................... 166

d) Colonization and mission in German East Africa (1886) ............ 166

e) Warning against a nationalist understanding of missions
(1885) ..................................................................................................... 166

f) Bruno Gutmann on the Lutheran Mission (1909) ........................ 167

g) Portuguese colonial mission in Mozambique (1896).................. 167

168. ... Rebellion and “Pacification efforts” ............................................. 168

a) Namibia: Herero-Nama Rebellion (1904)........................................ 168

b) Ghana: The “Christian Companies” of the Basel Mission ........ 169

169. ... African Christians and Adaptation of European ideas .............. 169

a) Carl Christian Reindorf: “Rule, Britannia”, 1895.......................... 169

b) Togo: Pastor Robert Kwamis’ Luther play (1900) ...................... 170

 

B. Concepts of Ecclesiastical Independency.............................. 171

170. ... Ethiopianism in West Africa........................................................... 171

a) E.W. Blyden, Philip and the Eunuch (1882).................................. 171

b) James Johnson: Christian Revival in Africa................................. 172

c) James Johnson: Church Union Perspectives in Nigeria ............ 172

d) Mojola Agbebi: Inaugural Sermon in the ‘African Church’
(1902)...................................................................................................... 173

171. ... Ethiopianism in South Africa.......................................................... 174

a) Nehemia Tile’s Thembu Church..................................................... 174

b) “Ethiopia shall soon stretch out her hands unto God”.............. 174

172. ... Prophetic Movements in Southern Africa.................................... 175

a) Isaiah Shembe: Emphasis on African identity............................. 175

b) Early Accounts of Visions and Miracles...................................... 176

c) John Chilembwe (Malawi) on the First World War..................... 176

173. ... Prophetism in West Africa: Garrick Braide in Nigeria................. 176

a) Competition with “Rain doctors”................................................... 177

b) Liberation from evil spirits.............................................................. 177

c) Rejection of the Movement as “blasphemical”........................... 178

d) James Johnson, Elijah II.................................................................. 178

e) Defense of the Movement in the West African Press................ 178

174. ... Uganda: Orthodox and independent............................................. 179

a) Constitution of the African Greek Orthodox Church
(Extract).................................................................................................. 179

b) Reuben Spartas, The Orthodox faith as the
“indisputable faith” ............................................................................. 179

c) Spartas in Greece: An article in Pantainos, 1947.......................... 180

 

C. Developments within the Roman Catholic Church......... 180

175. ... White Fathers: ‘Folk Mission’ at Lake Victoria........................... 180

176. ... The White Fathers and Rwanda’s Ethnicities (1913).................. 181

a) A Missionary chronicle about Hutus and Tutsis (1905)............ 181

b) Catholic Mission and German colonial rule................................. 181

177. ... Jesuits and “Paganism” in Madagascar (1924)............................ 182

178. ... Basutoland: The first Ordination of an African (1931)................ 182

179. ... South Africa: New Orientation in Education (1928).................... 183

180. ... Aims in Zimbabwe: An “African Lourdes” (1943)....................... 183

 

D. Themes of the1920s and 1930s............................................................ 184

181. ... New Interest in Africa...................................................................... 184

a) Joseph H. Oldham, International Missionary Council................ 184

b) The African ecumenist J.E.K. Aggrey, 1919................................ 184

c) J.E.K. Aggrey called to Achimota (Ghana)................................... 184

d) The Nigerian Bishop Oluwole on the London Africa
Institute ................................................................................................. 185

182. ... South Africa: “United we stand, divided we fall” (1920)............ 185

183. ... Italian Occupation of Ethiopia and Nigerian Critique ................ 186

184. ... Max Yergan: Christianity and social Renewal.............................. 187

a) Christianity and Communism (1932).............................................. 187

b) Support of the Freedom Struggle in Africa.................................. 187

185. ... Tambaram 1938: African Experiences in India.............................. 188

a) Report of Bishop Alexander B. Akinyele (Nigeria)..................... 188

b) Reminiscences of Albert Luthuli (South Africa)......................... 188

 

E. National Movements And Christianity................................... 189

186. ... Kwame Nkrumah: The Significance of J.E.K. Aggrey................. 189

187. ... Herbert Macaulay: Criticism of Missionary Work....................... 190

188. ... Nnamdi Azikiwe: Religious Tolerance........................................... 190

189. ... National Church of Nigeria, 1948.................................................... 191

190. ... Kaji Tovalou Houenou, Protest, 1924............................................ 191

191. ... Jomo Kenyatta: Christianity and Individualism (1938)............... 192

192. ... Waruhiu Itote: World War II as Turning Point............................ 192

193. ... Julius Nyerere and the Maryknoll Fathers.................................... 193

 

 

V. Africa 1945-1990............................................................................................... 194

 

A. “Wind of Change”.................................................................................... 194

194. ... Harold Macmillan: Wind of Change, 1960.................................... 194

195. ... Pan-African Congress, Manchester 1945..................................... 194

196. ... First Conference of Independent African States, 1958............... 195

197. ... All Africa Conference of Churches (1963).................................... 195

198. ... “Unity and Freedom in the New Tanganyika” ............................ 196

199. ... Protestant Missions and Rebellion in Angola, 1969................... 197

 

B. African Churches And Nation Building................................... 198

200. ... All Africa Conference of Churches: Africa in Transition .......... 198

201. ... Kwame Nkrumah: Conciencism (1964) .......................................... 199

202. ... Ghana: “Verandah Boys” Creed .................................................... 199

203. ... Léopold Senghor: Islam and Christianity (1964).......................... 200

204. ... Julius Nyerere on the Church in Africa (1970)............................. 201

205. ... Christian Council, Tanzania: Inevitable Change (1977).............. 202

 

C. African Theology................................................................................... 202

206. ... Lamin Sanneh: Translating the Message (1988).......................... 202

207. ... Kwesi Dickson: The Theology of the Cross (1984)..................... 203

208. ... John Mbiti: The Biblical Basis for African Theology................. 204

209. ... Steve Biko: Black Consciousness (1973)...................................... 205

210. ... Manas Buthelezi: Black Theology (1973)...................................... 206

211. ... Kimbangu’s New Jerusalem (1951)................................................ 206

 

D. Church And Apartheid In South Africa................................... 208

212. Ideology of Apartheid......................................................................... 208

a) J. D. du Toits: The Boer Trekkers—a new Israel......................... 208

b) Die Nederduitse Gereformeerde Kerk of Transvaal (1951):
Internationalism is not
Christian, 1951......................................... 208

213. Attitudes of the Churches................................................................... 209

a) Cautious Distance: Cottesloe Consultation Statement
(1961)...................................................................................................... 209

b) Exclusion of the World Alliance of Reformed Churches
(1982)...................................................................................................... 210

c) Response of the Dutch Reformed Church.................................... 211

d) The ‘moment of truth’: The Kairos document............................. 211

e) Rustenburg Declaration.................................................................. 212

 

E. Conflicts And New Beginnings........................................................ 212

214. Tensions between Christians and Muslims..................................... 212

a) Sudan: Here we Stand United in Action for Peace...................... 212

b) Nigeria: Demands to Restrict Sharia (1978).................................. 213

215. Ghana: Dialogue efforts since 1987 ................................................... 214

216. Churches and Civil Society................................................................. 215

a) All Africa Conference of Churches, Proceedings, 1991............. 215

b) Malawi: Pastoral Letter “Living our Faith”, 1992........................ 216

c) Kenya: Anglican Archbishop Gitari’s Account,
1987-1997................................................................................................ 216

d) President Chiluba declares Zambia a Christian Nation,
1991......................................................................................................... 217

217. Independent Churches and Democratisation................................... 218

 

 

I. Latin America 1450-1600................................................................................... 219

 

A. The First Encounters and the Perspectives of Victor
and Victim........................................................................................................ 219

218. ... Columbus: First Contact with the “Indians” (1492)..................... 219

219. ... Caribbean: On the Religion of the Tainos (1498)......................... 220

220. ... Mexico: Moctezuma in Anticipation of Cortés (1519)................. 221

221. ... Mexico: Lament after the Conquest (about 1523)........................ 222

222. ... José de Acosta: Conquest and Evangelization (1590)................ 222

 

B. Legitimation and Criticism of the Conquest........................ 223

223. ... Sources of Legitimation................................................................... 223

a) Alexander VI: Bull ‘Inter caetera’ (4.5.1493)................................. 224

b) Isabel of Castilla: The Encomienda (December 20, 1503)........... 225

224. ... The Advent Sermon of Antonio Montesinos (1511).................. 226

225. ... The “Requerimiento” and Criticism of It....................................... 227

a) The Requerimiento (1513)............................................................... 228

b) Bartolomé de las Casas: Criticism of the Requerimiento
(circa. 1526)............................................................................................ 229

226. ... Pope Paul III on the Human Dignity of the Indians (1537)......... 229

227. ... Two Controversial Interpretations of the
“Compelle intrare”............................................................................ 230

a) Juan Ginés de Sepúlveda (1544)..................................................... 231

b) Bartolomé de Las Casas (1551)...................................................... 231

 

C. Establishment of Colonial Church Structures................ 232

228. ... Pope Julius II: Kingly Patronage (1508)........................................ 232

229. ... Exercise of Patronage by Philip II (1574)....................................... 233

 

D. Mission and Missionaries.................................................................. 234

230. ... Mexico: The Missionary Method of the Franciscans
(1596).................................................................................................. 234

231. ... Peru: Evangelization of the Inca Empire
(End of the Sixteenth Century)....................................................... 235

232. ... Guatemala: Agreement on peaceful Missionization (1537)........ 236

233. ... Brazil: Catholic and Calvinistic Activities .................................... 237

a) Manuel da Nóbrega: On the land and people of Brazil
(1549)...................................................................................................... 237

b) Jean de Léry: The Mission of the Hugenots in Brazil
(1557)...................................................................................................... 238

234. ... Language and Missionary Work .................................................. 239

a) Our Father in the Aztec language Náhuatl (1546)....................... 239

b) Third Council of Lima: The Indians should be taught in
their own language (1583)................................................................... 240

 

E. Religious Dialogue And Ethnographic Works...................... 240

235. ... Mexico: Religious Dialogue Between Aztecs and
Franciscans (1524)............................................................................ 240

236. ... Bernadino de Sahagún: Rehabilitation of the Aztec
Culture (1577).................................................................................... 243

 

F. Failed Approaches To Indian Christianity............................. 244

237. ... Inquisition Proceeding against an Indian Nobleman (1539)...... 244

238. ... Pedro de Quiroga: Life Story of a New Convert
(around 1563)..................................................................................... 245

239. ... Mexico: Debates about a College for Indians
(around 1570)..................................................................................... 246

240. ... G. de Mendieta: No Indian Priests (1596)...................................... 247

 

 

II. Latin America 1600-1800................................................................................. 248

 

A. Church and Mission in Colonial Society................................. 248

241. ... Peru: Monasteries, Hospitals and the University in
Baroque Lima (1629)......................................................................... 248

a) Monasteries...................................................................................... 248

b) Hospitals........................................................................................... 249

c) University.......................................................................................... 249

242. ... Mexico: The Cult of the Virgin of Guadalupe (1649)................... 250

243. ... Mexico: A Debate on the Erudition of Women (1690/91)........... 251

a) Filotea de la Cruz, The letters (the knowledge) that God
wants in Women (1690)....................................................................... 251

b) Sor Juana Inés de la Cruz: The Answer to Sor Filotea
(1691)...................................................................................................... 252

244. ... Missionary Work in the Baroque Period...................................... 252

a) Fr. José de Arriaga: The indigenous manner of
"doing both things at the same time" (1621).................................... 253

b) J. de Palafox y Mendoza: On the piety and the life of
the Indians (1640)................................................................................. 253

 

B. Indian and Mestizo Voices................................................................ 254

245. ... A Morning Prayer of the Evangelized Quechua
(around 1600)..................................................................................... 254

246. ... Garcilaso de la Vega: The Incas looked for the true God
(1609).................................................................................................. 255

247. ... A Mayan Priest: Christianity as the Origin of All Evil
(Seventeenth century)..................................................................... 256

248. ... Indian Brotherhood of the Virgin of Copacabana (1613) ........... 258

249. ... Chronicle of the Indian F. Guamán Poma de Ayala
(around 1615)..................................................................................... 259

a) The Conquest................................................................................... 259

b) The Fathers and the Indians ......................................................... 260

c) Ordinary Christian Indians ............................................................. 260

 

C. The Reductions (settlements) of the Jesuits and
Their Purpose ................................................................................................. 261

250. ... The Reductions of the Jesuits ....................................................... 261

a) A. R. de Montoya: What are the reductions of the Jesuits?
(1630)...................................................................................................... 262

b) Paraguay: Atrocities of the ‘Bandeirantes’ (1629)...................... 262

251. ... Paraguay: Everyday Life in the Reductions (1697)...................... 263

252. ... Paraguay: Sunday in the Reductions (1771)................................. 264

253. ... Franciscans in California (1787)...................................................... 265

 

D. Slavery.......................................................................................................... 266

254. ... Alonso de Sandoval: Slavery and Mission (1627)...................... 266

a) The mistreatment of black slaves .................................................. 266

b) On the black slaves’ capacity for faith ........................................ 266

255. ... Afro-Brazilian Protests at the Curia (1684/86).............................. 267

256. ... J.B. Labat: Negro Slaves in the French Antilles
(around 1700)..................................................................................... 268

 

E. Colonial Protestantism.................................................................... 268

257. ... The Dutch in Brazil (around 1650).................................................. 268

258. ... The Moravian mission in the Caribbean (1739)........................... 269

 

F. Heralds of Independence.................................................................... 270

259. ... Mexico: Against the Discrimination of the Creoles (1771)......... 270

260. ... Peru: Uprising of Túpac Amaru II (1780-1781)............................. 271

a) Indians, mestizos and Creoles against the Europeans
(1780)...................................................................................................... 271

b) Criticism of colonial oppression under the judges (1781).......... 272

261. ... Juan Pablo Viscardo: Letter to the Spaniards in America
(1792).................................................................................................. 273

262. ... Mexico: Historical-theological Emancipation of the
Creoles (1794).................................................................................... 273

 

 

III. Latin America 1800-1890................................................................................ 275

 

A. On the Path to Independence.......................................................... 275

263. ... The Bishop of Michoacán on the Situation around 1810........... 275

264. ... Mexico: Priest in the Fight for Independence ............................. 276

a) On the Hidalgo manifestos to the Americans (1810).................. 276

b) Decree of José Maria Morelos (October 13, 1811)...................... 276

c) Mexico: Simón Bolívar and the Religion (1815)........................... 277

265. ... Demand for a Memorial for Las Casas (1813)............................... 277

266. ... Columbia: Political Catechism (1814)............................................. 278

267. ... Simón Bolívar: On the Rights of the Indian (1825)...................... 279

 

B. Rome and the New Countries.......................................................... 280

268. ... Leo XII: Encyclical "Etsi lam Diu" (September 24, 1824)............ 280

269. ... A Report on the State of the Church (1825)................................. 280

270. ... Ecuador: Concordat of September 26, 1862.................................. 281

271. ... Surrounding Vatican I (1869-1870)................................................. 282

 

C. Popular Religion and the State of the Church and
the Missions............................................................................................... 283

272. ... Indian Religiosity in the Andes (1801).......................................... 283

273. ... Ecuador: On the Decadence of the Clergy in Quito (1805)......... 284

274. ... Uruguay: Report on a Former Reduction (1825).......................... 285

275. ... Cuba: Catholicism and the Religion of African-Americans
(around 1880)..................................................................................... 286

 

D. Protestantism......................................................................................... 286

276. ... English Overseas Congregation in Rio de Janeiro (1819ff)........ 287

a) The first Anglican Chapel in South America (1819).................... 287

b) Legal Status of Protestants (1824)................................................. 287

277. ... Brazil: Problems of a German Immigrant Congregation
(1833).................................................................................................. 288

278. ... Private Initiatives for the Distribution of Bibles (1826)............... 289

279. ... Brazil: Anglo-Saxon Missionary Protestantism (1862)................ 289

280. ... Nicaragua: Native American Moravian Indian
Communities (1849).......................................................................... 290

281. ... Mexico: Civil Status of Protestants (1843).................................... 291

 

 

IV. Latin America 1890-1945................................................................................ 292

 

A. Catholicism Becomes More Roman and European........... 292

282. ... The Latin American Plenary Council of 1899 in Rome................ 292

a) Relations with non-Catholics ........................................................ 292

b) The establishment of Catholic Universities................................. 292

c) Missions among the Indians ......................................................... 292

d) Commendation of the “Pius Latin American Seminary”
in Rome................................................................................................... 293

283. ... Brazil: Immigration from Non-Iberian Europe .............................. 293

a) Development of parish of Catholic immigrants (1893)................ 293

b) On the Right of German-Speaking Catholics to Preserve
Their Culture (1912).............................................................................. 294

284. ... Brazil: Problems with Popular Piety................................................ 294

 

B. Confessional Pluralisation........................................................... 295

285. ... Protestant Emigrant Cubans in the USA (1880)........................... 295

286. ... Brazil: Beginnings of the Pentecostal Movement (1911)............ 295

287. ... Panama Congress 1916: Beginnings of an
Inter-Protestant Network................................................................. 296

288. ... Beginnings of an Afro-Brazilian Religion: Umbanda
(1939).................................................................................................. 297

289. ... Brazil: German Immigrants and the Third Reich (1934)................ 298

 

C. Faces of Latin American Catholicism...................................... 300

290. ... Brazil: Antônio Conselheiro and his Movement
‘Os canudos’..................................................................................... 299

a) The beginnings of Conselheiro during the monarchy
(1877)...................................................................................................... 299

b) Conselheiro’s preaching prohibited by the Archbishop of
Bahia (1882)........................................................................................... 300

c) Conselheiro’s prophecies against the Republic (1889).............. 300

291. ... Mexico: The “Cristiada” (1926-1929) ............................................ 300

a) Pastoral Care after the Prohibition of the Catholic Cult ............. 301

b) On the causes of the people’s uprising of 1926-1929................. 301

292. ... Peru: Conflict between the Supporters of the Indigenous
and the Supporters of the Hispanics ............................................ 302

a) José Carlos Mariátegui: The Evangelization of the Indian
(1928)...................................................................................................... 302

b) Victor Andrés Belaúnde: Reply to J.C. Mariátegui (1931)......... 303

293. ... Brazil: Black African Popular Piety (1941)..................................... 304

 

D. The Emergence of the Social Question...................................... 305

294. ... Gabriela Mistral: For a social Christianity (1925)......................... 305

295. ... A. Hurtado: On the Social Condition and the Church in
Latin America (1947)......................................................................... 306

 

 

V. Latin America 1945-1990................................................................................. 308

 

A. The Path to an New Latin American Christianity........... 308

296. ... Integration of Protestant Churches (CELA) 1949........................ 308

297. ... The Formation of CELAM in 1955................................................. 308

298. ... Argentina: Call For a Strong Christian State (1953)..................... 309

299. ... Cuba: Church and Revolution (1960)............................................. 310

300. ... Brazil: Catholics on the Side of the Military Dictatorship
(1964).................................................................................................. 310

 

B. The Second Vatican Council and Its Reception................... 311

301. ... A Latin American Bishop at the Council ..................................... 311

302. ... Revolution and Violence................................................................. 312

a) The Way of Camilo Torres (1965).................................................. 312

b) From the Encyclical ‘Populorum progressio’ (1967)................... 313

303. ... Second General Conference of the Episcopate in Medellín
(1968).................................................................................................. 314

a) Consciousness of the historical moment and an ecumenical
spirit........................................................................................................ 315

b) Liberating education as an answer to our needs........................ 315

c) Option for the poor.......................................................................... 315

304. ... Characteristics of Liberation Theology......................................... 316

a) Gustavo Gutiérrez: A New Way to do Theology........................ 317

b) Gustavo Gutiérrez: not development, but social revolution...... 317

c) Hélder Câmara: The Spirituality of Liberation Theology ........... 318

d) Bible Interpretation of the Base Community of Solentiname
(1973)...................................................................................................... 318

e) ‘Vamos Caminando’, A Peruvian Catechism (1977).................... 318

f) Oscar Romero: The political dimension of the faith .................... 319

305. ... Third General Conference of the Episcopate in Puebla
(1979).................................................................................................. 320

a) The Popular Piety ............................................................................ 320

b) Affirmation of the Preferential Option for the Poor ................... 321

 

C. The Conflict on the Theology of Liberation......................... 322

306. ... Nicaragua: The Sandinista Revolution (1979).............................. 322

307. ... Ernesto Cardenal: Cuba as a Reference Model............................ 323

308. ... Instruction of the Congregation for the Doctrine of the
Faith on August 6, 1984................................................................... 323

309. ... From the Encyclical “Sollicitudo rei socialis” (1987)................... 325

 

D. Developments of Protestantism.................................................. 325

310. ... Nicaragua: Indian Protestant Churches (1982)............................. 325

311. ... Rubem Alves, A Protestant Liberation Theologian ................... 326

312. ... Neo-Pentecostal Movements (since 1980)................................... 327

a) Honduras: Vida Abundante (1989)................................................ 327

b) Guatemala: The Church ‘El Shaddai’ (1990)................................. 328

 

E. Awakening and Multiplicity.......................................................... 328

313. ... Charismatic Catholicism (1977)....................................................... 328

314. ... Recognition of Religious Pluralism (1985).................................... 329

315. ... An Ethnic Liturgy: The “Missa dos Quilombos” (1980)............ 330

316. ... Debates Surrounding the 500-Year Celebration .......................... 331

a) A letter to third world theologians (June 6, 1986)....................... 331

b) Manifesto of the indigenous peoples (1986)............................... 331

c) Message of John Paul II (October 13, 1992)................................. 332

317. ... Ecumenism and Liberation (1989)................................................... 332